Now that the protests in Egypt have led to a change in leadership — an outcome that seemed inevitable for a while, though now-former-President Mubarak denied that it would happen — I want to go back and look at a key event during the last few weeks, when the Egyptian government disconnected the country from the Internet
It appears that removing an entire country from the internet is surprisingly easy, by making changes in a system known as the border gateway protocol (BGP). This system is used by ISPs and other organisations to connect to each others’ networks, so the Egyptian government just had to order ISPs to alter the BGP routing tables to make external connections impossible.
Looking at BGP data we can confirm that according to our analysis 88 per cent of the ‘Egyptian internet’ has fallen off the internet,reports Andree Tonk of BGPmon, a site dedicated to monitoring changes in the BGP. A recent report for the OECD cited the BGP as a weak point in online infrastructure that needs to be secured — a prediction that seems to have now come true.
As the report makes clear, it’s not technically difficult, at least not for a relatively small country with a relatively centralized connection to the Internet. And we see countries such as China and Iran using similar techniques to do more selective blocking (the latter has, I understand, responded to the events in Tunisia and Egypt by joining the former in blocking access to blog sites such as this one). The issue isn’t technical, but one of policy: is the government allowed to cut off the Internet?
Of course, with countries where the government makes its own authority, the answer is always
Yes. But what about in the U.S., where the government was limited, at least through the end of the 20th century, to abiding by its constitution, legislation, and a judicial system?
For one answer to that question, we can look to Senator Joe Lieberman of Connecticut, who, along with Senators Susan Collins (Maine) and Tom Carper (Delaware), introduced legislation
to enhance the security and resiliency of the cyber and communications infrastructure of the United States.
The Protecting Cyberspace as a National Asset Act of 2010, S.3480 (here’s a PDF of the latest version as of this writing) was introduced last June and was entirely replaced by Senator Lieberman in December (you have to go to the bottom of page 197 of the PDF to see the new version). The December version was reported to the Senate from the Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs, which Mr Lieberman chairs (and on which his cosponsors sit). It’s now on the Senate’s legislative calendar. (The corresponding House bill is H.R.5548.)
The bill, if it should become law,
would create a new operational entity within [the Department of Homeland Security]: the National Center for Cybersecurity and Communications (NCCC).
The NCCC would be led by a Senate-confirmed Director, who would regularly advise the President regarding the exercise of authorities relating to the security of federal networks. The NCCC would include the United States Computer Emergency Response Team (US-CERT), and it would lead federal operational efforts to protect public and private sector networks. The NCCC would detect, prevent, analyze, and warn of cyber threats to these networks.
The bill creates, in addition to the NCCC, quite a number of offices, councils, task forces, and programs, some of which make sense and some of which probably don’t. It creates the Office of Cyberspace Policy, whose Director is appointed by and reports to the President. It creates the Federal Information Security Taskforce, comprising executives and representatives from more than a dozen government agencies. And so on.
The entire bill is quite extensive, running well over 200 pages. And what’s frightening about it is that it puts the U.S. government right in the middle of the operation and management of the Internet within the United States and its territories — and keep in mind how central U.S. operations and U.S.-based services are to the Internet as a whole. It’s difficult to understand the effect that all this new administration will have on the operation of the Internet within the U.S., and the effect that it could have if it’s mismanaged, if it tries to respond to perceived threats, if it’s affected by right-wing zealots or other dubious elements that inhabit the U.S. political community.
I have read the bill’s summary, along with parts of the bill itself, but haven’t had time to read the whole bill yet. It’s not clear how bad it could be, nor, indeed, whether it will be bad at all... but I’m very skeptical of the result of putting such a large set of deep layers of U.S. government bureaucracy in the middle of the operation and management of the Internet. And I’m deeply worried about giving authority to make operational decisions to people who have insufficient technical knowledge to understand the ramifications of those decisions, who may have political or ideological motivations that do not coincide with what’s best for the Internet, and who can implement their decisions without the checks-and-balances oversight that protects us in other parts of our lives.
I have lots more reading to do.